Books are still an excellent means for acquiring new knowledge. Here you find a list of books I really enjoyed reading.
A pleasant way to learn, especially when mental tension does not suffice for attentive reading, is to watch recorded talks or lectures. A rather large pool of such material is e.g. the MIT open courseware.
I really, really enjoyed the lecture 6.004 Computation Structure by Chris Terman. More recent editions of his lectures are available online in the meantime.
Until now I have digested the course by Martin Odersky Functional Programming Principles in Scala from Coursera. It can only be wholeheartedly recommended.
These books I enjoyed reading and learning from.